I was once launching the Dynamics AX DB Upgrade Preparation Tool (AxDbUpgrade.exe) on a Windows Server 2008. I was using the version distributed with the Dynamics AX 2009 DVD. The issue here was that the tool was crashing shortly after launching.
In the Application event log I could find the following error:
Faulting application AxDbUpgrade.exe, version 5.0.593.0, time stamp 0x4831b0f9, faulting module ntdll.dll, version 6.0.6001.18000, time stamp 0x4791a783, exception code 0xc0150002, fault offset 0x0006ecfb, process id 0x15c4, application start time 0x01c99e5ff1667cfb.
The reason for this issue was that the Microsoft SQL Server Native Client for Microsoft SQL Server 2005 was not installed on the machine where I executed the tool, and installing it solved the issue.